Effects of Diabetes | Best Dentist in Bangalore | Sakra World Hospital
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May, 2021

Effects of Diabetes on Dental Health

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Worldwide lack of awareness especially in developing countries like India is causing more oral complications in patients with diabetes. However, it is not certain for oral complications to appear in the oral cavity from the onset of diabetes. According to various studies, it has been observed that people with poor oral hygiene and also people with diabetes with poor glycemic control are at higher risk of developing oral complications during diabetes.

A positive correlation is seen between diabetes and various inflammatory diseases and soft tissue pathology in the oral cavity. There is also evidence of aggravating pre-existing periodontal problems like periodontitis in dental patients who develop diabetes because of chronic inflammatory reactions caused by bacteria and delayed wound healing. Therefore one should always pay particular attention to their oral health and hygiene along with keeping their glycemic level under control. One should make the habit to visit their regular dentist for early identification or management of oral manifestation of diabetes and also follow the advice given by the dentist about how to protect your teeth and gums during diabetes.

Sakra World Hospital is one of the best dental hospital in Bangalore. At Sakra World, the dentistry department is committed to offering best-in-class medical care. We have some of the best dentist in Bangalore who treat and manage dentistry conditions with advanced treatment techniques.

To protect your teeth and gums take dental and diabetes care seriously. You can follow the following for proper dental care:

  • Make a commitment to manage your diabetes: Make sure your diabetes levels are normal and follow the doctor’s instructions.

  • Brush your teeth twice daily: Use a soft toothbrush and gently brush between the teeth and behind the teeth. Avoid vigorous teeth brushing which causes bleeding of gums and change your brush after every 3 months.

  • Look for early signs of gum disease: Redness, swelling and bleeding of gums.

  • Don’t smoke: Smoking increases the risk of serious diabetes complications including gum diseases.

  • Floss your teeth at least once daily.

  • Follow the healthy eating plan that you and your doctor or dietician have worked out for you.

  • Make sure your dentist should know about your diabetes.

  • Make sure your denture and false teeth fit well.

  • Schedule regular dental visits.

Diabetes is one of the diseases from the dental point of view. Uncontrolled diabetes is a cause of concern as it has several harmful effects on teeth and gums. Glucose is present in the saliva when diabetes is not under control, the increased glucose levels helps the harmful bacteria to grow. These bacteria combine with the food to form a soft sticky film called plaque. Plaque also forms from foods that contain sugars/starches. A high glucose level over a period of time leads to increased plaque deposits.

The most common oral problems related to uncontrollable diabetes are:

  • Gingivitis - inflamed or unhealthy gums. Gums may become red, swollen and may also bleed.

  • Periodontitis - a mild or severe form of gingivitis. Persistent infections between the gums & teeth and gums get pulled away from teeth. Permanent teeth that may become loose or move away from each other. Bad taste and bad breath in the mouth.

  • Fungal diseases - uncontrolled growth of the naturally occurring fungus in the mouth leading to oral thrush/candidiasis. The presence of white patches on gums, tongue, cheeks and palate may also lead to open sores.

  • Xerostomia - due to uncontrolled diabetes there is a decreased rate of salivary flow, increasing the risk for tooth decay and gum diseases. There may be dry and rough tongue, pain in the mouth, cracked lips, oral sores, problems with speaking, eating, chewing and swallowing, etc.

  • Burning mouth - altered taste sensation.

Diabetes versus Periodontitis

According to Leo, Periodontitis is recognized as the sixth complication of diabetes. In many cases, periodontitis is the 2nd stage of inflammation that begins within gingivitis. From the clinical perspective, gingivitis presents with swollen tissues and increased redness without loss of connective tissue attachment. Clinical signs of periodontitis include swelling, redness, bleeding from the gums, spacing between teeth, loose teeth and exposure of root surfaces through the loss of bone around the teeth.

The disease can present locally involving few teeth or be more generalized. In patients with uncontrolled diabetes, periodontitis is more generalized. Patients with Type II diabetes are at higher risk for developing periodontal diseases than Type I diabetes.
Patients with diabetes and periodontitis start to show various complications such as advanced glycation end products which happens as a result of exposure to sugars, altered lipid mechanism, oxidative stress, a state of imbalance of oxidation and antioxidant system in the body and start to counteract and systemically elevated cytokine levels. At this stage, patients are advised to take proper care of their dental health and medical care providers should coordinate the therapy.

Periodontal therapies are mostly used in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Oral hygiene instructions can be followed regarding the information on the role of diet, professional cleaning of teeth and gum tissues using ultrasonic devices, using antibacterial mouth rinses. Others include local or systemic antibiotics & surgical/Laser intervention.

Other less common effects of diabetes include mouth ulcers, delayed wounds healing of the soft tissues of the mouth, lichen planus (an inflammatory condition that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth), pain when chewing & change in the fit of dentures.

For children having diabetes, teeth may erupt at an earlier age than is typical. By this, we conclude that prevention and control of periodontal disease must be considered as an integral part of diabetes control.

If you are looking for diabetes treatment in Bangalore, then consult Sakra World Hospital to know more about the process and available doctors.

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Dr Balasubramanya K.V

HOD & Senior Consultant - Periodontics

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